Category: Galilee

Nachal Amud and Migration in the Hula

It is the perfect time of year for hiking, pleasantly warm without being hot, and with the trees in full autumn bloom. So it made sense to take advantage of this and to head up north to hike in Nachal Amud (the Amud Stream), one of the classic hikes of northern Israel.

British police station
British police station

First, came the descent into Nachal Meiron, which flows down from the area of Mt Meiron. On route, we passed the ruins of a British police station, built to protect some of the springs in the area. We continued down the path, passing the remains of an aqueduct and also remnants of terrace farming, which has been restored to an extent to show visitors what the area would have looked like when it was actively farmed.

Nachal Amud
Nachal Amud

We continued our descent through a beautiful canopy of autumn leaves, reaching Nachal Amud, and continuing further along the stream before the trail began to loop back on its other bank.

Hanging out with Shimon Shiffer
Hanging out with Shimon Shiffer

During our ascent, we bumped into a posse of photographers; it transpires that journalist Shimon Shiffer, whose normal focus is politics and diplomacy, was doing a feature on the Israel National Trail which traverses the country from north to south; part of the trail runs along Nachal Amud. We had a nice chat and he assured me that he would pass on my regards to the British Ambassador.

Bar'am Synagogue
Bar’am Synagogue

We returned to the beginning of the hike, but our day was just beginning; having driven all the way up north we were determined to make the most of our time! A short drive took us to the ancient synagogue of Bar’am, one of many ruins of synagogues in the north dating to the Byzantine period.

We then drove along the stunning road that runs along the Lebanese border into the Naftali heights, which offers astonishing views into the Hula Valley. After a brief stop at Tel Kedesh, and a visit to the most complete example of a Roman Temple in the country, we continued our descent to our final destination of the day, the Agamon Lake.

Migrating cranes at the Agamon
Migrating cranes at the Agamon

We are in the middle of the migration season in Israel, where millions of birds use the country as a corridor between Europe/Asia and Africa in their search for food as the northern hemisphere cools for the winter. The Agamon offers the opportunity to see many of these birds, and at the moment there are tens of thousands of cranes in the area. Although it is possible to explore independently, we booked onto a guided tour which takes you into areas which it is impossible to access on your own. The noise of the cranes was deafening, and it was amazing to see so many of them and to be so close. We also saw many animals and birds during the trip, including nutrias (large rodents with vicious teeth), gulls, coots, ducks, pelicans and remarkably a wild boar. It was a fantastic trip and highly recommended, particularly at this time of year.

Sunset over the Hula and its cranes
Sunset over the Hula and its cranes

After enjoying the sunset over the valley, it was time for us to return home, after a varied and most entertaining day out.

Settlement of the Jordan Valley

A strange atmosphere today, a sense of nearing the end, as we began our penultimate tour of the course. Today’s trip was dedicated to the settlement of the Jordan Valley (or specifically the area around the Sea of Galilee), with a diversion via the Harod spring which we had not managed to visit previously.

On the one hand, a palpable sense of relief in the air – we have nearly made it! On the other, tension and concern as the final exams approach. And a mix of nostalgia – we have gone through a lot together.

Our day began, as mentioned, at the Harod Spring, located on the slopes of the Gilboa mountain. We visited the house built by Yehoshua Hankin, who was responsible for purchasing a great deal of the land that eventually became part of Israel – around 1000 square kilometres (that’s around 250 000 acres), including the majority of the Jezreel and Harod valleys. The house has recently been restored and has a short film about the life of Hankin – the film is a bit dated but the story is very impressive.

The Harod Spring
The Harod Spring

We then descended to the Harod spring itself, the site of the biblical story where Gideon selected his warriors based on their drinking style, before going out to vanquish the marauding Midianites.

Leaving the biblical period behind us, we drove east to the site of ‘Old Gesher’, which until 1948 was the Gesher kibbutz. Gesher means bridge and here are three bridges over the Jordan river, with one dating to the Roman period (with Mamluk repairs on top). The border with Jordan runs right down the middle of the river and we descended to the river (under the watchful eye of the nearby Jordanian border position) to check out the bridges and hear about the battle for the site in 1948.

Roman / Mamluk bridge over the Jordan at Old Gesher (currently under restoration)
Roman / Mamluk bridge over the Jordan at Old Gesher (currently under restoration)

Nearby are the ruins of the Naharayim hydroelectric plant, the first such structure in the Middle East and a remarkable feat of engineering for the time. Built across the border of what was then the Mandate of Palestine and Transjordan, it was an example of the cooperation between the early Zionists and King Abdullah of Jordan; sadly this did not last past the 1948 war and ever since it has been lying in ruins. The electricity company have built a small interactive museum about the plant; I had low expectations but it really was rather good.

Kinneret Courtyard
Kinneret Courtyard

From Gesher, we headed north to the Kinneret ‘courtyard’. Here the World Zionist Organisation established a training farm at the beginning of the 20th century, to help all the young and eager pioneers learn how to farm the land before going out to set up for themselves. The passionate and ideological young socialists who arrived here formed the backbone of what was to be the future state; indeed it was here that institutions such as the kibbutz; institutions such as the Hagana, Hamashbir and the Labour Union first sprouted.

One of the most famous inhabitants is Rachel Bluwstein (normally just referred to as Rachel or Rachel the Poet), a young pioneer who led a short and tragic life, leaving behind here a large amount of beautiful poems, many of which have become part of the Israeli literary and indeed musical canon.

The first building at Umm Juni
The first building at Umm Juni

Speaking of the kibbutz, our next stop was slightly further south at Umm Juni. In 1910 a small group of socialist ideologues arrived here, having been offered the land by the WZO. Remarkably, through their revolutionary communal living model, they were able to make a profit in the first year. And so the first kibbutz was born, established just next to the area called Umm Juni, and named Deganya.

The Motor House of Kinneret
The Motor House of Kinneret

We headed back north, to the site known as the Motor House. The building housed a pump that irrigated the surrounding fields, but of more interest was the story of the Yemenite immigrants who were housed here after moving to Israel in around 1912. They were eventually moved on in order to allow graduates of the Kinneret farm to establish a new communal settlement on the land, and a significant proportion of the group were not happy to leave. The story only became public knowledge in the past 15 years or so and caused quite a big deal of controversy in Israel.

Grave of Naomi Shemer in the Kinneret Cemetery
Grave of Naomi Shemer in the Kinneret Cemetery

We walked from the Motor House to the shore of the Sea of Galilee and our final site for the day, the Kinneret Cemetery. In a beautiful shaded setting next to Israel’s largest freshwater lake is housed the pantheon of Labour Zionists, the graves of Berl Katznelson, Rachel, Moses Hess, Nachman Syrkin, to name just a few. Together with these are some tragic stories associated with the struggle of the pioneers to adjust to their new environment; or on a completely different note, the grave of Naomi Shemer, the singer of ‘Jerusalem of Gold’, who was born at Kinneret.

We began our drive home to Tel Aviv, and in addition to the other emotions of the morning, we all began to feel a certain amount of nostalgia. Just one more tour remains, and it should be quite a fun one. What is the destination? You will have to wait until next week to find out!

Safed / Tzefat

Today’s tour was a very nostalgic one as I returned to the northern city of Tzefat (also known as Safed), where I lived for three months while on my gap year in Israel. I had a great time in Tzefat where I lived with a group of friends and volunteered in the local community. To a certain extent, my return felt like I was coming home.

View from Akhbara Lookout
View from Akhbara Lookout

However, as always on the guiding course, I was surprised by how many of the local sites I was completely unaware of while living here. We began our day at the Akhbara viewpoint, a lookout over the modern day Arab village which was a Jewish settlement in the 2nd temple period. We heard how Napoleon’s soldiers reached here during is 18th century campaign, in a fruitless search for the treasures of the Jewish temple in the nearby cliff face. We also gazed with awe upon the highest bridge in the middle east, over the Amud river bed, which has been engineered especially to withstand even major earthquakes (which do happen in our region).

View over Tzefat and Mt Meiron from Mt Canaan
View over Tzefat and Mt Meiron from Mt Canaan

We continued up to the city of Tzefat, passing through and arriving at Mt Canaan. Here, from a vantage point over Tzefat itself, we heard the story of the city during the 1948 Arab Israeli War. It is a very dramatic tale and I shall not attempt to do it justice here; I look forward to retelling it to tourists in the future!

From here we headed into the city of Tzefat itself, and after brief stops in the more modern town we entered the area of the Old City. For Jews, Tzefat is one of the four holy cities of Israel (together with Jerusalem, Hebron and Tiberias). Beginning in the 16th century, here developed many of the ideas that make up the Kabbalah, or Jewish mysticism; on the other hand (and even in contrast) it was here that the Shulchan Aruch, the definitive codification of Jewish Law, was written.

Inside the Ashkenazi Synagogue of the Ari
Inside the Ashkenazi Synagogue of the Ari

We began our visit at the Ashkenaz Synagogue of the Ari. Known as a leading kabbalist (mystic) despite his brief time in Tzefat, he is credited with creating the kabbalat shabbat service which to this day is recited in synagogues around the world on Friday evenings. Tradition says that at the site of the synagogue, he would go out into the fields around Tzefat on Friday nights to welcome the Sabbath Queen, together with his followers. We learned about the history of the synagogue and some of the miracles believed to have taken place within it.

Ruins of a 16th century communal building in Tzefat
Ruins of a 16th century communal building in Tzefat

Moving on, we descended into recent excavations of parts of the city covered under rubble in an 18th century earthquake. We found a 17th century mikve (ritual bath) and then descended further into a large, probably communal, structure from the 16th century. Perhaps this was frequented by some of the leading kabbalists of the time?

Our next stop was at the Synagogue of Rabbi Yitzchak Abuhav. He was a leading rabbi and mystic in Spain in the 15th century, although he was never in Tzefat in person. In one of the arks in the synagogue is a torah scroll written by Rabbi Abuhav, who dipped himself in a mikve 26 times each time he had to write the name of God. It is considered so special that it is only used three times a year.

Inside the Josef Caro Synagogue
Inside the Josef Caro Synagogue

As we continued through the alleyways of the Old City, our guide entertained us with a myriad of stories about various miracles that have happened in Tzefat over the centuries. Eventually we reached our final synagogue for the day, that of Rabbi Josef Caro, the great scholar who wrote the Shulchan Aruch.

After a brief look-out over the Tzefat cemetery (which contains the tombs of many of these famous rabbis), we concluded our day on the peak of the hill on which Tzefat is based, dealing with an entirely different topic. Here are the ruins of what was once the largest Crusader citadel in the Middle East, constructed in the 13th century. Later, after the fortress was taken by the Mamluks in their conquest of the area, their leader, Baibars, constructed a huge tower on the site – it was possible to see its ruins and even to wander into its cistern.

Mamluk and Crusader ruins in the Tzefat Citadel
Mamluk and Crusader ruins in the Tzefat Citadel

The citadel is now part of a park, and I’m not sure the various couples who were spread out among the area to enjoy the sunset particularly appreciated our group passing through. As interesting as the history was, I’m not sure it added to the romantic mood. I’m pleased to say that after the explanations finished, there was just time for us to also enjoy the sunset over Mount Meiron, and the tomb of Shimon Bar Yochai (the original mystic, considered author of the Zohar), before beginning our journey back to Tel Aviv.

Settlement of the Jezreel Valley

Today we travelled north for a tour of the area of what is known as the northern valleys, referred to by many as the Jezreel Valley. The tour was focused on the development of the area in the modern period – this swampy valley was one of the large areas of modern day Israel that the early Zionists were able to purchase from local landowners (they did not want it given the difficulty in farming here). Here, the pioneers developed techniques to drain the land and transform it into prime agricultural real estate; here developed the first kibbutz and the first moshav – the communal agricultural settlements.

View from Tel Yoqneam
View from Tel Yoqneam

First though, we travelled back in time at Tel Yoqneam. Only recently made accessible to the public, this is the remains of a settlement dating to the bronze age (it is mentioned in the bible). The site is still under excavation so presently there is little to see but the ruins of a Crusader church; still the commanding views over the lower Galil make it worth the climb.

Old train carriage at Kfar Yehoshua Station
Old train carriage at Kfar Yehoshua Station

A short distance away lies the old train station of Kfar Yehoshua, recently restored and turned into a museum about the Valley Railway. Built in the early 20th century, it helped provide supplies to the construction of the larger Hijazi railway, which connected Istanbul with Mecca, via Jordan. As a by product it served to help develop the area of the lower Galilee. The film in the museum is actually really good (and amusing!) and worth a short stop for all rail enthusiasts.

Work is currently underway to build a new railway in the area, although it will not follow exactly the same route. It is possible to see the work all along the valley; when it will be completed is rather hard to say, however!

War Memorial at Kfar Yehoshua
War Memorial at Kfar Yehoshua

A short ride away took us to the moshav of Kfar Yehoshua, named for Yehoshua Hankin, who was responsible for organising a great deal of the land purchase in the area. We learned here about the development of communal living in these early pioneer settlements, which eventually evolved into the kibbutz and moshav that we know today.

The Oldest Mt Tavor Oak in Israel!
The Oldest Mt Tavor Oak in Israel!

It was a beautiful, fresh and sunny day, so we took advantage of the marvellous weather to enjoy a countryside stroll around the area of Tivon. We explored the Mediterranean undergrowth and passed by what is considered to be the oldest Mt Tavor Oak in the country, ironically not situated on Mt Tavor.

Church at Waldheim/Alonei Abba
Church at Waldheim/Alonei Abba

Following a spot of perambulation, we ascended to the bus once more to visit two former settlements of the Templer Christians – Bethlehem of Galilee and Waldheim (the latter is now called Alonei Abba). We refreshed ourselves on the Templer movement (having visited their sites previously in Haifa and Tel Aviv) and learned about their later split – some returned to the Protestant Church, as evidenced by the pretty little church in Alonei Abba.

Grave of Ilan Ramon, Nahalal
Grave of Ilan Ramon, Nahalal

Our next stop was the cemetery of Nahalal, the first moshav. Our guide took us around the tombstones, telling the story of the early years of Israel through the people we encountered. These young, ideological pioneers formed the backbone of Israeli society in its early years. Among the most famous of the Nahalal community was Moshe Dayan, a Defence Minister of Israel with an iconic eye patch. Also buried in the cemetery is Ilan Ramon, the first Israeli astronaut. He was not from Nahalal but served at a nearby airport base. Tragically, he is buried next to his son, who died 5 years ago in a plane crash.

The Great Courtyard of Merhavia
The Great Courtyard of Merhavia

After a very brief stop in Nahalal itself, we drove on to Merhavia, not far from Afula. Now the site of both a kibbutz and a moshav, side by side, it was the first modern Jewish settlement in the Jezreel Valley. Over the years they experimented with various forms of communal living, eventually arriving at what they have today – the kibbutz and moshav side by side. The original courtyard of the settlement has been restored and there is a small museum about its history that it is possible to visit.

Our final stop of the day was further north, at Sejera, now called Ilanya. This was really where everything began, in terms of the Jewish settlement of the area in the modern period (you may have noted that chronologically this day was running in reverse!). Funded by Baron Rothschild, Sejera was the site of a training farm for new immigrants. They would come here, learn how to work the land, and then take loans to buy territory, farm it and then pay them back. This model was later adopted by the JNF with the founding of the Kineret Farm (to be visited on a later trip) from which sprouted the first kibbutz.

Ancient Mikve at Ilaniya / Sejera
Ancient Mikve at Ilaniya / Sejera

While we were at the site, we also managed to visit a mikveh (ritual bath) from the Byzantine period, which was used by one of the married pioneers (nearly all were single at this time) for conjugal trysts! As such, it was later named for him…certainly one way to make a name for yourself…

My overall impression from the day was how very impressive these young men and women were. They came to a hostile environment, with no understanding of agriculture, to work land which was so bad that it was the only land available for purchase. Yet, they pushed through the hardships, made the land work for them and created the backbone for the future state. I think the appropriate Hebrew expression is ‘Kol HaKavod’!

Eastern Lower Galilee

With the sun shining on a beautiful January morning we travelled north for today’s tour which was based around the area of the eastern lower Galilee, a small area which roughly speaking is encircled by the roads 71, 90, 85 and 65 (for those trying to locate it on a map).

It is considered distinct from the central Galilee due to its geological make up – steep basalt cliffs formed by ancient volcanic activity (vs the sedimentary rock of the rest of the Galilee region). Our tour today was to be quite varied – as we get towards the end of our time on the course, some of our trips consist of us fitting in some of the sites that we have not yet had a chance to visit despite passing close by (for example during our trips to Tiberias or Christianity around the Sea of Galilee).

View north from the Arbel cliff face
View north from the Arbel cliff face

We began the day at Mount Arbel, an imposing basalt mountain with a sheer cliff face leading down to the Sea of Galilee. A short walk took us to a stunning viewpoint over the area and our guide helped us locate various sites of interest. We then heard the story of the town Arbel (located close by) during the Jewish revolt against Herod (recently made ruler of the Galilee) in the 1st century BCE. The Jews were soon overwhelmed and hid in caves hidden in the cliff face. To overcome this problem, Herod’s army constructed cages and lowered soldiers down to the caves where the rebels were sitting ducks. Many of them threw themselves to their deaths rather than be taken prisoner.

Ancient synagogue of Arbel
Ancient synagogue of Arbel

A short drive took us to the ruins of the Byzantine town of Arbel where it was possible to see the remains of their synagogue. There are many ancient synagogues around the Galilee and Golan (the oldest going back 2000 years) and we learned different theories as to the dating or provenance of different styles of construction.

Nabi Shu'ayb (Tomb of Jethro)
Nabi Shu’ayb (Tomb of Jethro)

We then headed west, passing the Horns of Hattin (site of the famous battle in 1187 when Saladin vanquished the Crusaders) and arriving at Nabi Shu’aib. The holiest site for Israeli Druze, it is considered to be the tomb of Jethro, father-in-law of Moses. The tomb complex is now run by Druze although Jewish and Muslim pilgrims (for whom Jethro/Nabi Shu’aib is also a holy figure) are welcome to visit too. It was a nice stop; the Druze were very welcoming and there were lovely views through the Arbel cliff to the Sea of Galilee.

Ancient synagogue of Korazim
Ancient synagogue of Korazim

Travelling north, our next stop was at the ruins of ancient Korazim. The earliest source about this site is the New Testament, when Jesus curses it for refusing to heed his teachings. Excavations in the 80s have unearthed most of the Byzantine period settlement, including a large synagogue dated to the 5th century. Interestingly, the synagogue contains some pagan symbols (including an image of Medusa, the character from the Greek myths). This is not unusual in synagogues of the Golan (Korazim is not in the Golan but is very close) where it seems that in later centuries some of these symbols were absorbed as by this time they had become simply decorative, without religious meaning.

Musical presentation at Domus Galilaeae
Musical presentation at Domus Galilaeae

A short distance away was the site of Domus Galilaeae. Opened by Pope John Paul II in 2000, it is a place for young men training to be Catholic priests to come for a period as part of their studies. The centre focuses on understanding the Hebrew and Jewish traditions of the early Christians who were based in the area; an idea that to live authentic Christianity one must understand its Jewish roots. Students study Hebrew and engage in interfaith dialogue. The building is beautiful and has a stunning view over the Sea of Galilee. We were also treated to a concert by some of the students who sang for us in Hebrew.

View over the Sea of Galilee from Tel Mutilla
View over the Sea of Galilee from Tel Mutilla

Our final stop of the day was at Tel Mutilla, located in the modern village of Almagor. We learned about the 1949 ceasefire agreement with Syria following the War of Independence, and the ensuing complications in three ‘demilitarised’ zones where the interpretation of ‘demilitarised’ was disputed. Visiting the memorial to the soldiers who died in an unexpected battle with Syrians in 1951 (which fortunately did not escalate further), we enjoyed the sunset over the Sea of Galilee before heading home to Tel Aviv.

Beit Shearim and Zippori

Today’s tour was another catch-up from when I was taken ill back in February, as we headed north to explore the national parks at Beit Shearim and Zippori.

Although the majority of the day was to be focused on the late Roman period, we took advantage of our location near the Beit Shearim park to hear the story of the Israeli hero Alexander Zaid.

Zaid was born in Siberia, as his family had been exiled there by the Russian government. On making aliyah in the early 19th century he identified the fact that many of the new Jewish villages that were being established had security problems, particularly in the north of the country.

He founded the Bar Giora Jewish self-defence organisation, which later evolved into the Shomer [guard] organisation. The Shomer itself later evolved into the Haganah [defence] which was the precursor to the Israeli Defence Forces. So it could be said that Zaid was one of the founders of the modern Israeli army.

Grave of Alexander Zaid
Grave of Alexander Zaid

He spent the end of his life in the area close to Beit Shearim where he helped manage the protection of Jewish villages in the Jezreel Valley and was on good terms with the local Arabs. In 1938, during the Arab Revolt, he rode out to answer a call for help from a nearby settlement and never returned – he was ambushed on route and shot dead. We visited the site where his body was discovered, and then his grave in the Shomrim [guards] cemetery – the shomrim being a sub-group he founded of the Shomer, to operate in this area.

At the top of the nearby hill stands a memorial statue of Alexander Zaid riding his horse, his eyes gazing out over the landscape that he used to patrol.

Heading down the hill, we visited the first part of the Beit Shearim site, the living area of the town. This area is actually free to visit and it is possible to see the remains of a synagogue, homes, ritual baths and a grand basilica structure.

According to the Talmud, Beit Shearim was one of the seats of the Sanhedrin, the Jewish leadership body, and indeed at one point the seat of one of the greatest leaders of the Jewish people, Rabbi Yehuda (or Judah) HaNasi, also known just as Rabbi, such was the extent of his greatness. Perhaps the Sanhedrin met in one of these structures? Perhaps Rabbi sat here?

Decorated sarcophagus at Beit Shearim
Decorated sarcophagus at Beit Shearim

We continued down to the area of the Beit Shearim national park, which is outside of the ancient city. It is however much more interesting, as this is the area of the huge necropolis. It is recorded in Jewish sources that Rabbi requested to be buried in Beit Shearim, even after moving away from the city to Zippori for his final years. As many people wanted to be buried near such a great sage, a vast necropolis developed here, with Jews being brought from around the world to be interred at the site.

Tomb of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi (Judah the Prince), Beit Shearim
Tomb of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi (Judah the Prince), Beit Shearim

We visited the tomb considered to be the final resting place of Rabbi Yehuda Hanasi and then explored other tombs, dug in vast catacombs in the soft chalk rock, filled with beautifully decorated sarcophagi. It was a bit eerie, but a remarkable site nonetheless.

Leaving Beit Shearim, we journeyed a short distance in the footsteps of Rabbi Yehuda Hanasi, and the Sanhedrin, to Zippori. I think Zippori is a fantastic site; a great mixture of antiquity, lovely views and ancient art.

Scholars believe that around 20 000 – 30 000 people, the vast majority Jews, lived in Zippori at its peak in the late Roman and Byzantine periods. We discussed here the migration of the Jewish community from the region of Judea to the Galil following the destruction of the temple and the failure of the Bar Kochba revolt. Sitting in the 5th century synagogue with its stunning mosaic floor, we learned about the development of Judaism around the synagogue as an institution in the absence of the temple.

View from the top of the Zippori Fortress
View from the top of the Zippori Fortress

Ascending the hill, we explored the ruins of an ancient Jewish neighbourhood and then climbed up to the top of the ruined fortress, an amazing structure in that it is made up of stones and construction from the Iron Age to the Ottoman period with almost everything in between – the view at the top was the reward and you can understand why it was of strategic interest throughout history to have a lookout up here.

Mosaic at the grand villa at Zippori. At the bottom, note the highlighted 'Mona Lisa of the Galilee'
Mosaic at the grand villa at Zippori. At the bottom, note the highlighted ‘Mona Lisa of the Galilee’

After visiting the remains of a grand Roman villa (containing a floor mosaic with the famous ‘Mona Lisa of the Galilee’ image, we descended to the lower town, and strolled along the Roman cardo. The most interesting building on this street contains a huge amount of different mosaics, including a grand depiction of the Festival of the Nile. Our guide suggested that it may have been a mosaic showroom.

Roman reservoir at Zippori
Roman reservoir at Zippori

On our way out, we popped into the ancient reservoir of the city. We learned how the Roman engineers ingeniously managed to bring large amounts of water to the city from nearby springs. In order to prevent waste, a certain amount of the water was diverted from the city into this huge reservoir for times of greater need (for example, in the summer).

This acts as a nice precursor for my (final!) catch-up trip next week – the grand Roman capital of Caesarea. Looking forward!

Campus Upper Galilee Day Three: Eastern Upper Galilee

Having taken in the delights of the Western and Central areas of the Upper Galilee region, the third day of our campus, somewhat predictably, was dedicated to the Eastern part.

Leaving Pekiin bright and early (after another splendid breakfast), we travelled north east to where the hills of the Galilee meet the plains (and formerly the swamps) of the Hula valley. Following a fascinating journey right along the border fence (somewhat unnerving to have Hizbollah sites pointed out to us from the bus), we arrived at our first site, Tel Kedesh.

Roman Temple at Tel Kedesh
Roman Temple at Tel Kedesh

Identified with Kedesh in the Galilee as mentioned in the bible, this is another of Israel’s many archaeological mounds. In fact, we spent our time at the base of the tel, site of a late Roman period cemetery and the ruins of a temple. Brazenly ignoring the signs saying ‘danger of collapse, do not enter’ (something we are not encouraged to do with our tourists, by the way!) we were able to see what remained of the entrance to the temple; our guide took the opportunity to explain to us about Roman ritual practices.

Jumping forward 2000 years, our next stop was at the Koach Fortress (formerly known as the Nabi Yusha fortress). This was a British built fortification to help prevent smuggling of arms in through Lebanon. In 1948, when they left, it became an important strategic position for the Arabs and Jews struggling for control of the land. The Arabs took it first but after three painful attacks the units of the Palmach won control. It was renamed the Koach Fortress as the Hebrew letters of the word koach have the numerical equivalent of 28, the number of soldiers who died in the attempts to take it.

Stone marking where Josef Trumpeldor was shot at Tel Chai
Stone marking where Josef Trumpeldor was shot at Tel Chai

It was to be a day of battle stories as our next site was Tel Chai, site of one of the most famous battles in Zionist history. Here, the one-armed commander Josef Trumpeldor led a group of young pioneers in defending their homes in an atmosphere of post WWI chaos in the area; Arab militias were fighting the French and the Jews were caught in the middle. Their end came in a bloody battle which cost Trumpeldor his life; the story goes that his famous last words were to the effect of “it is good to die for the Land of Israel”.

HaShomer Memorial at Kfar Giladi
HaShomer Memorial at Kfar Giladi

After hearing the story of the battle and visiting the original structures of the Tel Chai farm, we popped up the road to the HaShomer cemetery in Kfar Giladi. As well as housing the grave of those who died at Tel Chai, and the official memorial, here are buried or commemorated all the members of the Hashomer movement. This was effectively a Jewish militia founded to protect the nascent settlements of the Zionist movement; it was eventually absorbed into the Haganah in 1920. We heard some of the stories of its founders and important members, and enjoyed the beautiful view over the Hula valley.

Tanur Waterfall in Nachal Ayun
Tanur Waterfall in Nachal Ayun

After a relatively sombre morning, it was nice to lighten things up a bit with a stroll in the Nachal Ayoun nature reserve. A short walk took us to a view of the Tanur waterfall (so called as there is an oven (tanur is Hebrew for oven) shape eroded into the rock at its base.

View over Metulla and into Lebanon from Mt Tzefiya
View over Metulla and into Lebanon from Mt Tzefiya

Still, time was pressing, so we pushed on north to Mt Tzefiya (Mt Look-out) in Metulla. Situated right on the Lebanese border, we were able to enjoy a view far beyond Israeli territory. The stark contrast of the relatively barren Lebanese landscape with the greenery of Israel was striking, apparently a testament to the British introducing conservation laws (which were later kept by the Israeli government); something not effected by the French rulers of Lebanon.

We drove south, passing through the old town of Metulla, then through Kiriat Shemona, arriving eventually at our final destination, Tel Hazor. Considering that it is the largest archaeological mound in Israel, it seems remarkably unexcavated, badly signposted and undervisited. Excavations are however ongoing and over the years I am sure we will see more important discoveries there.

View from the acropolis at Tel Hazor
View from the acropolis at Tel Hazor

Of particular interest is the palace from the Canaanite period which may well have belonged to the King Jabin, mentioned in the Bible. Hazor was one of the Canaanite settlements taken by Joshua and indeed the palace shows signs of destruction, although cannot be proven that it was destroyed by the Israelites.

Israelite fortress at Tel Hazor
Israelite fortress at Tel Hazor

However, what is clear is that a later settlement, built on top of the Canaanite one, is Israelite; using the same architectural planning. There is also a ritual platform around which were found large amounts of bones – only from kosher animals.

A varied day – beginning with the Romans, zooming into the 20th century and concluding with the Biblical period! Nonetheless, highly enjoyable. Plenty to reflect on during our journey home to Tel Aviv.

Campus Upper Galilee Day Two: Central Upper Galilee

Day two of our campus begun with a predictable early start, made all the worthwhile by one of the best (if not the best) youth hostel breakfast I have ever had. A particularly impressive array of delicious cheeses on offer!

Today was dedicated to the Central Upper Galilee and we begun our tour with a walk around Pekiin, the Druze village in which we were staying. Beginning with a look out near the top of the ridge on which the village is built, we descended to the cave which tradition says hosted Rabbi Shimon Bar Yochai (the Rashbi) when he was hiding from the Romans, a story which is related in the Talmud. Here, it is said, he wrote the Zohar, one of the main books of the Kabbalah, the Jewish mystic tradition.

Pekiin Synagogue
Pekiin Synagogue

We continued down the slope to the main town square, and then to the small synagogue. The Jewish community of Pekiin has been there since at least the 16th century (and according to local legend, since the destruction of the Second Temple) but fled during the Independence War. Afterwards, one family returned, and their daughter is now the last Jew in the village. The small synagogue is cute, and there is also a small visitors’ centre depicting life in the village in the 19th century.

View east from Nebi Sabalan
View east from Nebi Sabalan

We continued on the Druze theme, heading east to their second most holy site in Israel, Nebi Sabalan. He was one of the early emissaries of the Druze faith and this is considered to be the site in which he lived. Our guide also used our visit to the site as an opportunity to tell us about the history of the Druze faith while we enjoyed the spectacular view over the rolling hills.

View from the summit of Mt Meron
View from the summit of Mt Meron

Further east we continued, reaching the highest peak in the Galilee, and the second highest peak in all of Israel: Mt Meron. We enjoyed a short hike around its summit (reaching the summit is not recommended – it houses a military intelligence base) where there are wonderful views; we also learned about the local botany which is slightly different at this height to some of the other regions of Israel.

Paar Cave
Paar Cave

From Meron, we descended into the nearby Paar Cave Reserve. It was time for a geological interlude as we learned about the karst processes that built the valley and then formed this cave as an escape for the draining water. The valley was dry but our guide assured us that after rains it is an impressive sight to see the water powering into this small opening. There was of course an appropriate local legend to accompany the geology!

Inside the tomb of Rabbi Shimon Bar Yochai (the Rashbi)
Inside the tomb of Rabbi Shimon Bar Yochai (the Rashbi)

Following this brief interlude, we ascended to Meron again, from the other side, into the small moshav named for the mountain which houses the tomb of the Rashbi (whose cave we had seen earlier). The tomb is considered a very important holy site in Israel, and it is particularly fun to visit on the festival of Lag BaOmer when thousands of people make a pilgrimage here; there is general accompanying chaos and when I came here several years ago there was even a chassidic trance party off to the side.

Traditional Circassian dress in Rihaniya
Traditional Circassian dress in Rihaniya

From the tomb, we travelled further north to the small village of Rehaniya, home to a large amount of Israel’s Circassian minority. They have a small visitors’ centre were we received a highly entertaining presentation from our Circassian host explaining his culture and the history of the Circassians in Israel, since they came here under the Ottoman Empire. They have a good relationship with the state and in fact their sons all serve in the Israeli army.

Our final stop of the day was at the Baram Synagogue. Tinged with controversy, this was the site of an Arab village (Biram) until 1948. The Arabs were advised to leave for a few weeks to protect themselves from an upcoming Israeli army operation in the Independence War, but since then have not been allowed back. The original inhabitants now are dispersed around the north of Israel and since the 50s have been petitioning the courts for the return of their land. The courts have actually approved their return pending the final sign off from the Defence Minister; successive Defence Ministers have not done this, citing security concerns. A few years ago a compromise was reached where the former inhabitants received financial compensation, but some refused to take it, still demanding their land rights. While the dispute continues, they camp in the site each summer.

Ancient synagogue at Baram
Ancient synagogue at Baram

Amidst this is the Baram Synagogue, dating from the Byzantine period (probably in the 5th century), which was actually used as living quarters by some of the village residents. It is now an archaeological site, but our enjoyment of its former splendour was somewhat dampened by the nearby controversy. Credit to our guide who did not shy away from these issues; the role of the guide is to relate and explain, while trying to remain as impartial as possible. It is for the visitor to decide what to make of all the complexities of this country!

With this, our time in the Central Upper Galilee was concluded; we returned to Pekiin for a well-earned dinner!

Campus Upper Galilee Day One: Western Upper Galilee

After the delight of a summer break, it was time to get back into things, and how. Three days in the delightful greenery of the Upper Galilee awaited us, and although the intensiveness of it was a bit of a shock to the system after over a month without field trips, it was as fun and fascinating as always.

The first of our three days was dedicated to the Western Upper Galilee, with another two days for the central and eastern parts of this region. This part of Israel, which runs along the northern border with Lebanon is ‘upper’ in two senses of the word; it is both higher physically and also more northern than the area of the Lower Galilee.

Ancient Jewish tomb at Kfar Yasif
Ancient Jewish tomb at Kfar Yasif

Our day began in the arab village of Kfar Yasif. I have been here on more than one occasion to enjoy the famous hummus at the Abu Adham restaurant. I had however failed to notice the somewhat overgrown remains of a large cemetery close to the town centre. This has actually been a major Jewish cemetery from the middle ages right into the 19th century, and we were pointed towards a couple of graves associated with famous figures, including the Rav Abraham Finzi, deputy British consul in Akko from the late 1830s.

Crusader sugar refinery at Churvat Manot
Crusader sugar refinery at Churvat Manot

After hearing a little more about the history of Kfar Yasif, we continued north and after a short hike through some relatively serious overgrowth (and a fair amount of cow pats) arrived at the site of Hurvat Manot. The ruins of a crusader fortified farm were not overly exciting on the face of it, but our guide explained that this was in fact a site for the manufacture of cane sugar. He used this as a clever segue to tell us about the history of sugar in Israel (and therefore Europe, as the first sugar reached Europe from here); how the industry was developed and expanded by the Crusaders, making them very wealthy.

Arch Cave in the Adamit Park
Arch Cave in the Adamit Park

After a quick scramble back to the road, we headed further north to the Adamit Park. We first enjoyed a spectacular view south over the Western Upper Galilee (and beyond) as our guide explained to us how the landscape in front of us was formed over millions of years. We then proceeded to the Arch Cave, where we were regaled with ancient legends about its formation while we enjoyed its beauty.

View over Montfort castle from Goren Park
View over Montfort castle from Goren Park

Our next stop was in the Goren Park where we were able to enjoy a viewpoint over the Nachal Kziv and on the opposite bank, the Montfort castle. Avid followers of this blog will recall that I visited the castle just under a year ago with a friend, and quite a splendid site it is too. Our guide told us the story of the site, which at its peak was the centre for the Order of the Teutonic Knights in Israel, until the crusaders were unceremoniously turfed out by the Mamluk invaders.

Tower & Stockade model at Hanita
Tower & Stockade model at Hanita

Having enjoyed the view, and lunch in the town of Shelomi, we visited the Hanita forest, home to a model of the tower and stockade settlement. Developed by the early Zionist pioneers, this was a way for them to build a relatively secure settlement in just one day, important at a time when there were increasing local tensions over the Zionists’ purchase of land in the area. Although Hanita was not the first tower and stockade settlement, it is one of the most famous, due to the efforts made in its construction and its location so far north, close to the border. Our guide regaled us with the story of the project and the history of the tower and stockade system of building.

Inside the grottoes at Rosh Hanikra
Inside the grottoes at Rosh Hanikra

From the closeness of the forest, we headed all the way west and north to the exposed cliff face at Rosh Hanikra, where we were able to enjoy the benefits of the sea breeze. Here is a border crossing with Lebanon (used only by the UN), but of more interest for the intrepid traveller are the stunning views down the coast and the beautiful grottoes carved out in the cliff face through millennia of erosion by the force of the sea. We took a cable car down the cliff and wandered through the grottoes, taking in the magical and mystical ambience.

Monument to the 14 (from the Night of the Bridges)
Monument to the 14 (from the Night of the Bridges)

We concluded our day on a more sombre note. First, we made a brief stop at the Monument for the 14 (Yad L’Yad), in memory of those who died on the fateful ‘Night of the Bridges’ in 1946. These was an ambitious, coordinated attack on British supply lines by the guerrilla fighters of the Palmach. While the operation achieved its objectives 14 operatives did not make it through the battle – their remains are here. Our guide told us some of their stories, as well as the details of the operation itself.

Memorial for the Yechiam Convoy
Memorial for the Yechiam Convoy

Our final stop was at another memorial, this one for the Yechiam Convoy. In 1948, even before Israel was officially declared a state, life was becoming increasingly difficult for the Jewish settlements, many of whom were under siege. The soon to be Israeli forces would try and reach them with armoured convoys; however their weapons and armoured vehicles were not very advanced. At this site, in March 1948, a convoy en route to the Yechiam kibbutz came under attack and 47 of its members were killed. As we move forward in our studies towards the more modern history we are likely to encounter more and more of these sad stories, many of them coming also with individual acts of heroism.

Dusk was upon us and so it was time to travel eastwards to our base for the next couple of days; the youth hostel in the Druze village of Pekiin. I had fond memories of shabbatot spent there with my friends in FZY. Before turning in, we had a special Druze dinner organised for us in the former diwan of the village mukhtar. Quite delicious! Certainly enough to set me up for the days ahead.

Tiberias

Another trip northwards, but this time to the east of the country, by the shores of the Kinneret, or the Sea of Galilee, to the city of Tiberias. This was a catch up trip with a course from the Jerusalem branch; my course sensibly visited Tiberias in February – visiting it in the last week of July when the heat and humidity are at their peak is not particularly wise, but still it is good practise for the future!

Our day actually began north of Tiberias, at the Sapir Station of the national water carrier. It is an extremely secure site (Israel is worried about possible attacks on the water supply) so I’m afraid there are no pictures to show you. The visit was actually extremely interesting – water is a big issue in Israel and through the presentation we received we were able to understand how the country has historically dealt, and continues to deal, with a shortage of rain fall and natural water sources.

We also learned about the construction of the national water carrier back in the 1960s, a daring and pioneering engineering project to bring water from the Kinneret to the centre and south of the country to help the farming industry. I have to be honest, I wasn’t expecting too much from the visit but was pleasantly surprised by how interesting it was (perhaps it was also because our guide there was particularly animated!). To visit, you need to be in a group, but they will let you join existing bookings if you are too few in number – contact them to arrange.

Ottoman period fortress, Tiberias
Ottoman period fortress, Tiberias

It was now time to head to Tiberias, together with Jerusalem, Hebron and Safed (Tzefat), one of the four holy cities of Israel. We began in the centre of the modern city, learning about its second lease of life, under the Bedouin ruler Daher el-Omar. Our guide regaled us with the story of this powerful man who gradually conquered huge chunks of Israel in the 18th century, making himself very popular with the locals but unfortunately less popular with the Ottomans. He made the deserted Tiberias his capital but eventually relocated in the face of numerous attacks from the nearby ruler of Damascus.

Al-Amari Mosque, Tiberias
Al-Amari Mosque, Tiberias

We explored some of the ruins from the Ottoman period, a fortress; government buildings, a beautiful mosque sadly in disrepair – built by Daher el Omar, this was once the main mosque of the city. We also learned about the Jewish community brought here from Turkey by Daher el-Omar under the leadership of Rabbi Haim Abulafia. Relations were good between the Jews and the Muslims during this period; the Jews of Tiberias were even able to help warn about an impending attack because of letters from Jews based in Damascus.

Roman city gate, Tiberias
Roman city gate, Tiberias

We continued south to the area of Roman & Byzantine Tiberias. This was really the city at its most grand. Most scholars agree that it was founded in the 1st century by Herod Antipas (son of Herod the Great) as his capital (he ruled the area of the Galilee). Although much has been excavated and prepared for visitors, for some reason the area of the digs is not yet open for tourists. Still, as students on the tour guide course there are certain perks afforded, so the gates were opened for us to explore the city gate, the theatre and bathhouse; even the possible site of the famous Jasmin mosque built many centuries later by the Ummayid rulers of Israel.

Slightly further south and we arrived at Hammat Tiberias. The town of Hammat is actually mentioned in the bible and after Tiberias was founded the Jews in the area continued to live there; Tiberias was built on their burial site and so was impure. Fortunately, in the 2nd century the famous mystic, Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai, passed through, and purified Tiberias (we’re not sure how). So the Jews began to move in and eventually the two towns effectively joined.

Mosaic at Hammat Tiberias Synagogue
Mosaic at Hammat Tiberias Synagogue

At Hammat Tiberias are the hot springs which give it its name (ham is Hebrew for ‘hot’), and in the national park it is possible to cautiously dip a finger into the water (it is rather too hot for submersion!). More importantly, the site contains an ancient synagogue, or rather three ancient synagogues built on top of each other following the destruction of the previous building from earthquakes. Thus, it is possible to stand in one place and see remnants of a synagogue from the 3rd, 5th and 6th centuries!

As with many synagogues from the period there are beautiful mosaics on the floor. Our guide explained the imagery and also regaled us with the tale of Tiberias as a centre of Judaism; indeed the centre of Judaism for 750 years. Here was written the Tosefta, the Jerusalem Talmud (confusingly); here the Masoretes finalised the punctuation and vowels of the Torah which we still use today. As we gazed into the synagogue we imagined that perhaps here came some of the great scholars whose names we still recall and whose opinions we still cite in matters of Jewish law. A remarkable thought with which to conclude the day.